||운초 계연수는 1864년 宣川에서 태어나 조실부모하고 修鍊을 하면서 桓檀 의 古書와 神敎 哲學書를 널리 수집하였다. 1898년 『태백진훈』 『단군세기』를 간행 하고 1899년 『참전계경』 『태백일사』 『천부경요해』를 간행하였으며, 1911년 암함 노의 『삼성기』, 원동중의 『삼성기』, 이암의 『단군세기』, 범세동의 『북부여기』, 이맥 의 『태백일사』를 합편하여 『환단고기』를 간행하였다. 스승인 李沂가 단학회를 창립 하고, 1909년 絶食自盡하자 운초는 단학회를 발전시키고 독립운동에 매진하였다. 1918년 겨울 단학회 본부를 관전현 紅石拉子로 옮겨 단학회관을 짓고 倍達義塾을 열었으며 단학회보를 간행하였다. 1898년 무술년에 광개토태왕비를 탁본하고 1912년 다시 탁본을 뜬 이후 무술등본에 의거하여 그 사이에 마멸된 138자를 복원 하여 ‘聖陵碑文缺字徵實’을 발표하여 광개토태왕비의 진면목이 후세에 알렸다. 1916년 9월 9일 묘향산 석벽에서 천부경을 탁본하여 이것을 1917년 1월 단군교 교당으로 보냈다. 이것이 1920년 『정신철학통편』과 1921년 단군교 기관지인 『檀 鐸』에 게재되면서 천부경이 세간에 널리 알려지게 되었다. 이 때 운초는 글자가 모호 했던 탁본과 함께 천부경 필사본을 함께 보냈는데, 단군교에 보낸 천부경의 필사본 이 『태백일사』본이라고 사료 된다. 1919년 4월 이상룡의 西路軍政署에 참여하여 공을 세웠고 1920년 8월 15일 韓奸 甘永極에게 체포되어 被殺 당하였다. 운초 계연 수는 조선시대 말기와 일제강점기 시대를 살면서 우리 민족의 9천년 역사를 밝히는 桓檀의 古史를 수집하여 간행하였고, 한민족의 道學心法을 밝히는 서적을 연구하여 간행하였다. 그는 위대한 역사가이고 훌륭한 철학자이며 불굴의 독립운동가였으 며, 겨레의 큰 스승이었다. 그러나 선생은 국가로부터 어떠한 포상도 받지 못하였고, 그의 사상과 업적은 제대로 평가를 받고 있지 못하고 있다. 본 논문을 통하여 운초 계연수의 功勞와 업적이 정당한 평가를 받기를 기대한다.
||운초 계연수, 이기, 환단고기, 태백진훈, 천부경요해, 천리경, 단학회, 성릉비결자징실, 배달의숙, 단학회보, 묘향산 석벽
||Gye Yeon-su (Honorific name: Uncho) was born in Seoncheon in 1864. Upon his parents’ early passing in his childhood, he devoted himself to self-cultivation, widely collecting ancient texts and philosophical books on the Teachings of Spirit (Singyo). He compiled and published a series of such books as Taebaekjinhun (the Genuine Instruction of the Great Resplendence) and Dangunsegi (the Chronological Annals of Dangun) in 1898, and Chamjeongyegyeong (the Revelation on the Ultimate Goal of Human Perfection), Taebaekilsa (the Hidden History of the Great Resplendence), and Cheonbugyeong yohae (the Exposition on the Heavenly Emblem Scripture) in 1899. Afterwards, he compiled Samseonggi 1 (the Records of the Three Sacred Realms I) by Ahnhamro, Samseonggi 2 (the Records of the Three Sacred Realms II) by Won Dong-jung, Dangun segi (the Chronological Annals of Dangun) by Yi Am, Bukbuyeogi (the Records of the Northern Buyeo) by Beom Se-dong, and Taebaekilsa (the Hidden History of the Great Resplendence) by Yi Maek into one single volume, and published it with the title “Hwandangogi (the Ancient Records of Hwandan)” in 1911. Yi Gi, the teacher of Gye Yeon-su, founded the Association of the Divine Radiance Studies (Danhakhoe), but, shortly afterwards, he ended his life by undertaking a fast to death upon the Japan’s Annexation of Korea. Then Gye Yeon-su took charge of the organization for its further advancement, actively engaging in independence movement. In the winter of 1918, he shift the headquarters to Hongshi-lazi of Guandian county, a village in southern Manchuria, where he carried out some major undertakings such as the construction of the Assembly Hall of the Divine Radiance Studies (Danhak hoeguan), the establishment of the Public College of Baedal (Baedaleuisuk), the launching of the Journal of the Divine Radiance Studies (Danhakhoebo). In 1898, he rubbed a copy from the inscriptions of the Gwanggaeto Stele. In 1912, he conducted another round of copy-rubbing there, and discovered a discrepancy between the two versions of copy. Then he reconstructed 138 worn-out characters, and revealed to the generations to come the mishap which took place at the tombstone by publishing a book entitled the Truth on the Lost Characters in the Inscriptions of the Holy Stele (Seongleungbimun-gyeolja-jingshil). On September 9th, 1916, he happened to rub a copy from an inscription on the wall of a cave in Myohyang mountain, and next year dispatched it to the main office of Dangunism (Dangungyo). Then, this copy was posted on the book “A Compendium of Spiritual Philosophy (Jeongsin cheolhak tongpyeon)” in 1920, and on the official journal of Dangunism “The Messenger of the Divine Radiance (Dantak)” in 1921, and this is how the Heavenly Emblem Scripture (Cheonbugyeong) was introduced to the world. On that occasion, Gye Yeon-su enclosed his own hand-written transcript in addition to the original rubbed copy, for it contained some characters too vague to decipher. It is this transcript that is presumed to be the Heavenly Emblem Scripture (Cheonbugyeong) which was used in the compilation of the Hidden History of the Great Resplendence (Taebaekilsa). In the April of 1919, he served in the Western Route Army Headquarters (Seorogunjeongseo), attaining meritorious deeds, but unfortunately, on August 15th, 1920, he was arrested by a Korean collaborator named Gam Yeong-geuk and was brutally murdered. Uncho Gye Yeon-su, with his life spanning the final stage of Joseon dynasty and early period of Japanese Colonial Rule, took credit for accumulation, compilation and publication of the significant books that elucidate the Korean nation’s 9,000 year history, the philosophy of Dao, and the cultivation of mind. He was an erudite historian, an excellent philosopher, an indomitable independence activist, and a great teacher of the people. However, he had never received any rewards from his country, and his thoughts and achievements had not been given their due and appropriate recognition in Korea and the world. I hope that this paper serves as a way to help scholars and common people to understand and recognize the life and achievements of Uncho Gye Yeon-su in a truthful manner.
||Uncho, Gye Yeon-su, Yi Gi, Hwandangogi, Taebaekjinhun, Cheonbugyeong yohae, Cheonligyeong, Danhakhoe, Seongleungbimungyeolja-jingshil, Baedaleuisuk, Danhakhoebo, the Wall of a Cave in Myohyang Mount